Monday, August 24, 2020

Dorothy Parker Essay Example for Free

Dorothy Parker Essay Dorothy Parker was an exceptional lady. Remarkable in her works and uncommon in what she accomplished with her compositions. Her books of sonnets and her short stories were blockbusters and her sections in The New Yorker were very well known. She was one of the main ladies and a focal figure of the Algonquin Hotel Round Table, where all the extraordinary abstract virtuosos of her time would have their lunch. Paper reporters qouted her and two Broadway plays were expounded on her. Briefly,she was one of the most discussed lady of her time. Is striking that her distinction originated from her works. So much distinction for a woman’s works is unordinary these days yet given aside access her time. What's more that she was not a minor essayist but rather her abstract yield at long last was very little: two volumes of short stories and three of verse. The most recent decade of the nineteenth century and the initial two many years of the twentieth was a period of enormous scope political developments and social changes among ladies. Another age of ladies journalists developed with Dorothy Parker as their most celebrated one. More oppurtunities for authors existed before the strength of radio film and TV. The papers and magazines thrived and just the territory of New York City alone distributed 25 day by day papers. The â€Å"New Women† as they were marked were concerned with winning women’s rights: the vote, instruction, financial opportunity, acces to a profession and an open voice. These ladies were taught and dynamic and needed a break with the preservationist past. Ladies journalists of the period didn't see wedding and having kids as their definitive objective throughout everyday life. They dismissed the customary women’s circle and guaranteed a the region of expressions that had been a finished male domain previously. Many dreaded to be thought of as â€Å"women writers†. Dorothy Parker said that her most intense petition had been â€Å"Please, God, don’t let me compose like a woman†. Parker’s works then again were generally kept to ladies and to what is critical to them. What made Parker so succesfull? What made that time pine for her compositions? So as to comprehend Parker’s succes we have to see her works with regards to the time they were composed. Dorothy Parker was conceived in 1893. The most striking proof of progress of the job of ladies in the public arena around then was simply the development of the school taught and self supporting new lady. By 1870 there were eleven thousand ladies understudies tried out advanced education (21 procent all things considered) and after 10 years there were forty thousand ladies understudies took a crack at advanced education (32 procent everything being equal). After they graduated they needed to pick between a customary job of family life and youthful marriage or a vocation of paid work. On August 26, 1920 ladies formally gain the option to cast a ballot by the nineteenth Amendment. In spite of the fact that ladies didn't turn into a solid political power directly after that the Amendment increased the intensity of ladies to impact change. Another significant part of the progr essions in women’s postion in the public eye these years was the main universal war. In spite of the fact that the United States took an interest in the war for a generally brief timeframe and peopled not so much have an idea about what was happening in Europe the war changed American culture essentially. In excess of 4,000,000 American men were assembled and sent off to Europe. One of the results of this was ladies entered the workforce in expanding numbers. Working not in just occupations that were particulary ladylike employments like nursing yet in addition in workplaces and processing plants, in stores and legislative organizations and then some. Ladies ended up working in already male-commanded fields and they were winning higher wages than previously. These progressions gave ladies another thought of indepedence and fearlessness. In 1920 23.6% of the workforce was female with 8.6 million females, ages 15 and up, working outside the home. In 1920, without precedent for American history more individuals (54.3 million) live in urban communities than rustic zones (51.4). As individuals became to move into the urban communities their ways of life changed. Urban communities have more exercises like setting off to the theater and dance club. Ladies in the urban areas were bound to work in cafés or workplaces and different areas that removed them from home. Every one of these components together made a domain of opportunity that ladies had never found before. One of the most visble results of this opportunity was the development of the Flapper young lady. The breakdown of the Victorian sexual standards was a steady procedure yet slowely the American culture was prepared for more up to date thoughts regarding sexual standards. The youthful common laborers lady had been known for her showy dresses and love of nightlife and moving. .They were generally monetarily self-ruling and liberated either by work or school from exceptional familial oversight, and started to locate an increasingly individualistic culture for themselves. Women’s appearance changed to a slim and littler outline not, at this point limited by underskirts and corsets.When the war started ladies began to support increasingly down to earth, shirtwaist -style dresses. These dresses gave more opportunity of development and a more noteworthy introduction of skin. First they crept up to calf length at that point up to knee length. Flappers didn’t show their feminime bends, trim their hair short and wore dim eyeshadow. As the United States was turning out to be increasingly urban, modern creation expanded by 60 percent during this decade while populace development was 15%. Large scale manufacturing requires mass utilization. Promoting turned out to be increasingly significant enticing individuals to buy the most stylish trends and freshest vehicles and burn through cash on clubs and eateries in the urban communities. For ladies this modern creation implied that they were more likey to have vacuum cleaners, clothes washers, refrigarators and other family machines that helped their family work. This expanded their relaxation time. Commercials focused on ladies in the 1920’s. Ladies appeared to have more monetary influence than previously and appeared to be responsible for the family units cash. Anyway these commercials despite everything reflected customary thinking about the women’s job in the public eye. These ads focused on family life and satisfying men over any message of autonomy. Dorothy Parker was conceived at the very beginning of this time of the â€Å"modern woman†. While people were currently equivalent under the law, oppression ladies despite everything continued. All through the 1920’s and 1930’s ladies were all the while battling against limitations. For instance, in a few states ladies were denied to serve on juries till 1940. The financial advances for ladies, as well, were insignificant. There was as yet a solid sexual division of work. Discrimiantion in family duties, instruction, compensations and advancements stayed ample. During the downturn ladies lost the increases made in the vocation world during the 1920s. What's more, a restored accentuation on the lady at home squashed the as of late picked up seeks after equity. Increasingly more a stereoype developed that ladies during the 1920s were explicitly dynamic (the Flapper) however politically impassive. Parker’s work focuses a sharp finger at that generalization and resists is. She acutely calls attention to the continuous battles for ladies to break free. Parker started her expert life in 1915 when she went to fill in as an inscription essayist for Vogue at a compensation of ten dollar seven days. By 1917 she moved to Vanity Fair and worked for supervisor Frank Crowninshield until 1920. From 1919 to 1923 Parker composed sonnets, representations, articles and columnd for more than thirty-five distinctive scholarly diaries and magazines. Parker’s first sonnet â€Å"Any porch† pubished in Vanity Fair in september 1915 presents nine distinctive female voices who talk about different subjects as the decision in favor of ladies, a round of scaffold, someones new hair style and the war in France. In 1916 she composed a progression of â€Å"hate songs†, satiric portrayals of married couples, entertainers and on-screen characters, relatvies, etc. These â€Å"hate songs† made Parker extremely well known. She before long started to manufacture a notoriety for being a complex youthful author with a clever message. In 1926 her first assortment of sonnets was distributed. Parker before long played an unmistakable voice calling for uniformity and social freedom for ladies. This unmistakable voice calling for correspondence and social autonomy for ladies was not out there in a manner the women's activist developments of that period were calling for it. This voice was covered up between the lines of her sonnets and stories. â€Å"The Waltz† was distributed in The New Yorker in september 1933. The story mirrors the considerations and discussion of a young lady who is moving a three step dance with a man who moves seriously. He steps al over her feet and kicks her in the shin sometimes. She continues saying that she’s not drained, that it didn’t hurt when he kicked her and when she moves beyond all inclination, the ensemble at last grinds to a halt. At the point when it does, she reveals to him that she wishes he’d instruct them to play something very similar. She said that she would essentially worship to continue dancing despite the fact that she abhors it. The two voices in this short story mirror the differentiation between an affable open voice and a clever and furious private voice. These two voices mirror an unmistakable articulation of the woman’s outward congruity and internal resistance. Along these lines the two voices in â€Å"The Waltz† are figurative for the woman’s feebleness. Directly from the beginning of the story unmistakably the lady wouldn't like to hit the dance floor with this man. She wouldn't like to move at everything except certainly not with this man. Yet at the same time she gets up and hits the dance floor with him. Parker is attempting to call attention to that there isn't that numerous young ladies out there who state what they think. There isn't generally an option for the lady in this story, in what manner can

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Sociology Research Paper Essays - Sociology, Conformity,

Human science Research Paper Human science is the logical investigation of human social movement. In the push to consider human social movement sociologists brake it down into objects of examination. The three objects of investigation are populace, social structure, and the person. Each can be separated yet each is additionally fundamentally identified with the other two. As an object of examination sociologists characterizes populace as a total of individuals in a geological region that has size and life span. The size has a lower cutoff of two and no upper most extreme. Life span shifts and has a lower cutoff of zero with no known furthest breaking point. Populaces are by definition comprised of people. The investigation of human populace is named demography. Demography contemplates the size and piece of a populace, just as relocation and area of the populace. Demographers track birth rates and demise rates and screen the populace development and attempt to clarify them as far as the social framework's turn of events. A genuine model is the Malthusian hypothesis where populace increments geometrically and the assets increment mathematically bringing about an absence of assets bringing about starvation and war. Luckily the hypothesis is imperfect in that it doesn't consider social factors, for example, fake contraception and the weight of huge famili es in a post mechanical society. The manner in which a populace associates with nature makes a social framework. The social framework draws on the populace and influences the populace. A case of this is in India where the proportion of men to ladies is (108 guys to each 100 female) while the sex proportion of most different countries is underneath 100. The reason for this divergence is that guardians esteem children more than little girls and some of the time prematurely end a female hatchling, or after birth give the little girl less consideration which can bring about sudden passing. A social framework is characterized as at least two jobs integrated by connections of association. A job is a designed tedious arrangement of practices. A case of a job is an occupation. There are different classes of social frameworks like proper associations that have objectives as a primary concern and endeavor to accomplish them (ex: countries) or like casual associations that are less objective arranged as in a network or a family. Human people group give social frameworks that serve the capacity of giving the day by day necessities of life to a populace. Social frameworks have four essential sorts of jobs; creation of merchandise and ventures, dispersion of the products and enterprises, enlistment and preparing of new individuals, and control capacities. Populace influences the jobs of the social framework. A case of this would be in the event that the birth rate expanded, at that point there would be a more prominent need to prepare these new individuals and the enrollment and preparing job would be influenced. The preparation of a person to get one of the gathering is named socialization and is done by chapel, family, and school, among different sources. People at that point are Homo Sapiens that shift in sex, age, and lifecycle. People can spread out roads to accomplish an objective and afterward through manners of thinking settle on a decision on which road to follow. People are separated from creatures in that all creatures can sign (responding to something) yet no one but people can image (the capacity to put importance into something). To be human you should have the option to image and to image you should have at any rate two individuals, which prompts a social framework. The outcome is that so as to be human you should be in a social framework. Helen Keller was a case of somebody who was not a human until she had the option to image. Social frameworks influence people by the procedure of socialization. Socialization ingrains the standards of the framework into the person. The standards are for the most part the prohibited and endorsed types of conduct in the social framework. Standards fluctuate in significance from the folkwa y of wearing a bind to a proper evening gathering to the mores of grown-ups not participating in sexual acts with kids. Socialization disguises these standards in the individual forming the subsequent character of the person. Absence of introduction to a social framework bring about somebody who isn't human as in the cases

Saturday, July 18, 2020

The Physical Effects of Alcoholism in Men

The Physical Effects of Alcoholism in Men Addiction Alcohol Use Print The Effects of Alcoholism in Men Consequences of Abuse Can Differ From Those in Women By Jerry Kennard Jerry Kennard, PhD, is a psychologist and associate fellow of the British Psychological Society. Learn about our editorial policy Jerry Kennard Updated on October 15, 2019 Jetta Productions/Iconica/Getty Images More in Addiction Alcohol Use Binge Drinking Withdrawal and Relapse Children of Alcoholics Drunk Driving Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery The statistics are not good. According to a report from the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, around 17.6 million people in the U.S. suffer from alcohol abuse or dependence. Thats roughly one in every 13 adults. Of these, more than 100,000 die each year of alcohol-related causes. Among adults, men are four times more likely than women to be heavy drinkers and twice as likely to be alcohol dependent. While the physical effects of alcoholism are largely similar for men and women, there are conditions that affect men more frequently and others which are entirely unique. Alcoholism and Injury When compared to men, women often have it harder when it comes to the health-related consequences of drinking. Alcohol-induced liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatitis develop more quickly in women, and more alcoholic women die from cirrhosis than do alcoholic men. Moreover, women who are alcohol dependent are at greater risk of developing liver cancer as well as certain cancers related to the digestive tract. While alcoholic men are also at high risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer, where they exceed is in rates of alcohol-related injury. According to a review from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, men are more likely to take risks while drinking, evidenced by markedly higher rates of alcohol-related deaths and hospitalizations. The number speak for themselves: Men are almost twice as likely as women to have blood alcohol concentration levels of 0.08 percent or greater.Men are four times more likely to have a motor vehicle crash while drinking than women.Men are more than twice as likely to experience alcohol poisoning.Men are more likely to exhibit aggression while drinking and are 70 more likely to cause harm to a child.Men are five times more likely to drown while drinking compared.Men have nearly a four-fold increase in the risk of suicide while drinking. These statistics are largely informed by how much more men can drink compared to women. Because of their lower body mass, women will tend to feel the effects of alcohol faster and will typically experience the chronic symptoms of the disease 10 to 20 years earlier. This accounts for why men are 400 percent more likely to experience alcohol-related psychosis, simply because they have a higher capacity for consumption and fewer short- to medium-term consequences. Alcohol and Health-Related Deaths While cirrhosis and liver cancer are the two primary health concerns for both men and women with long-term alcohol dependence, there are certain conditions for which a man is more likely to die. According to research from the School of Public Health at the University of Minnesota, there are certain health conditions for which alcoholic men are at higher risk of death. When compared to a matched set of men and women over the age of 65, the researchers found that: Men were twice as likely to die of liver cancer.Men were more than four times more likely to die of mouth, throat, or esophageal cancer.Men were three times more likely to die of a stroke.Men were more than twice as likely to die of alcoholic liver disease.Men were nine times more likely to die of alcohol-associated heart disease. Alcohol and Sexual Dysfunction While many of the consequences of heavy drinking are related to long-term abuse, there are impacts that can affect men over the short- to medium-term. Chief among these is male sexual dysfunction. Excessive alcohol use can directly interfere with the function of the testicles and affect the normal production of male hormones. When this happens, a man can experience erectile dysfunction, impotence, and infertility. Over the medium- to long-term, this can affect secondary sex characteristics, including the loss of facial and chest hair and the abnormal growth of breast tissue (gynecomastia). Moreover, erectile dysfunction medications like Viagra (sildenafil), Levitra (vardenafil), and Cialis (tadalafil) are less able to be absorbed if used with alcohol, minimizing the benefits of the drugs.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Article Review of John Bersins article, 5 Keys to...

Week One Learning Organizations are vital in assisting businesses to operate effectively. In this rapidly changing environment learning organizations acquire knowledge and innovates faster, helping the organization to thrive and survive the changing environment. Businesses that establish a learning organization create a culture encouraging and supporting the employees learning, and take risks with critical thinking, and new ideas. Organizations that endorse learning permit staff to make mistakes and the learning process is learning from those mistakes. Learning organizations and their employees experiment coming up with the best solution and learn from the experience. Employees learn when informed by the distribution of any new knowledge†¦show more content†¦3. Unleash the power of experts – make the experts available to share their skills and experience whether internal or external build a directory of experts. 4. Show the value of formal training - Formal training has a function in professional networking and career growth, and this training has not gone away. Managers should promote the opportunity making time for the people to learn, giving the organization greater productivity and satisfaction. 5. Allow mistakes - A huge mistake is the best organizational and individual learning opportunity. This is the time to build a formal process where the team focuses on what worked, what did not, and the changes in processes to improve the outcome next time (Bersin, 2012). The article provides ways to build a learning organization, and they all lead back to the organizations management, building a culture giving individuals the time to develop, reflect, share expertise and experiences, and learning from mistakes can help the organization surpass the competition, and thrive and survive the current changing environment. A learning organization is where the learning process involves all staff members and that learning and working are effortlessly entwined. Peter Senge and his team conceptualized the learning organization in his book The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization (Senge, 2009).

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about History of the Computer - 1245 Words

History of the Computer The first devices that resemble modern computers date to the mid-20th century (around 1940 - 1945), although the computer concept and various machines similar to computers existed earlier. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers.[1] Modern computers are based on tiny integrated circuits and are millions to billions of times more capable while occupying a fraction of the space.[2] Today, simple computers may be made small enough to fit into a wristwatch and be powered from a watch battery. Personal computers in various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as a computer; however, the most†¦show more content†¦This effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA), and the computer network that it produced was called the ARPANET. The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved. In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. In fact, the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. Wireless networking, often utilizing mobile phone networks, has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments.Show MoreRelatedHistory : The History Of Computers1631 Words   |  7 PagesThe History of Computers What is the history behind the computers we use in an everyday life? Most of us don t ask ourselves this question. But if it wasn t for the people who came up with these first inventions, we wouldn t have had the experience of this acknowledgment that we have today. Over the centuries computers have been evolving, becoming more and more advanced and equipped for the utilization of personal matter. What many of us don t know, is that the beginning of computers goesRead MoreHistory of Computers875 Words   |  4 PagesHistory of Computers Table of Contents Table of ContentsÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â….Â…Â….2 AbstractÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â….Â…Â…3 Body of ResearchÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â….4 - 6 ConclusionÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â….Â…7 BibliographyÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…..8 Abstract This project explains the history of computers, starting from Howard Aikens Harvard Mark I to present day time. Although I have not gone over all of the models in my report, I have chosen those which I feel have had the greatest effect on the computer world. I will show how in just forty years, computersRead MoreThe History of Computers1731 Words   |  7 PagesThe History of Computers Whether you know it or not you depend on computers for almost every thing you do in modern day life. From the second you get up in the morning to the second you go to sleep computer are tied into what you do and use in some way. It is tied in to you life in the most obvious and obscure ways. Take for example you wake up in the morning usually to a digital alarm clock. You start you car it uses computers the second you turn the key (General Motors is the largest buyersRead MoreHistory of the Computer1148 Words   |  5 PagesThe History of the Computer Long before computers were invented, humans realized the need for them. The history of the Computer started about 2000 years ago with the abacus. It is a wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with beads strung on them and was one of the best calculating machines until the seventeenth century (PBS, 1). In 1835, English inventor, Charles Babbage came up with the idea of the Analytical Machine, a general purpose, fully programmed-controlled, automatic mechanical digitalRead MoreHistory of Computer1341 Words   |  6 PagesHISTORY OF COMPUTER THE PRE-MECHANICAL AGE: 3000 B.C. – 1450 A.D. 1. Writing and Alphabets – Communication First development of signs corresponding to spoken sounds, instead of pictures, to express words. Around 2000 B.C., Phoenicians created symbols that expressed single syllables and consonants (the first true alphabet) The Greeks later adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels; the Romans gave the letters Latin names to create the alphabet we use today. 2. PaperRead MoreHistory of Computers1887 Words   |  8 PagesHistory of Computers ENG 121 The volume and use of computers in the world are so great, they have become difficult to ignore anymore. Computers appear to us in so many ways that many times, we fail to see them as they actually are. People associated with a computer when they purchased their morning coffee at the vending machine. As they drove themselves to work, the traffic lights that so often hampered us are controlled by computers in an attempt to speed the journey. Accept it or not, the computerRead MoreA Brief History of Computers1103 Words   |  4 PagesComputers have been around for a very long time. Going back in history, some people believe that the abacus was the true first computer. The first abacus is believed to come into existence between 2700–2300 BC and was created by the Sumerians so that they could count faster, and has evolved through the years. The term â€Å"computer† came out around 1613. People who performed computations or calculations were often referred to as computers. One of the first major counting problems in history was the CensusRead MoreThe History And How Of Computers915 Words   |  4 PagesThe History and How of Computers Everything you do on a computer or phone is meticulously programmed. Surfing the web requires HTML, CSS, JavaScript, JQuery, and PHP. Lines upon lines written such as â€Å"$temp = password_hash($object-password, PASSWORD_BCRYPT);†. The binary zeros and ones of machine code turn into video games, websites, and programs such as what you are using right now to read this. The age of information was brought forth by the ability to access all known information and share newRead MoreTechnology : History Of Computers1924 Words   |  8 PagesTechnology: History of Computers Computers have taking a huge chunk of our everyday lives. If it be using a smartphone or any other type of technology. Computers have influenced a revolution in the way we live. But it was not always like this, before computers became a necessity, very few people had them in their houses. Only the people that could afford these big clunks of metal had them. As time would go by and technology grew a computer would find a home in everyone’s household. The history of computersRead MoreThe History Of Ibm Computers Essay1811 Words   |  8 Pages The history of IBM computers began in 1943, when the company created Mark I weighing nearly 4.5 tons (Yost 25). Already in 1952, the first big lamp computer IBM 701 appeared, and in 1959, IBM introduced the first transistor computers which reached such a level of reliability and performance that the U.S. Air Force found it possible to apply them in the early warning system of air defense (Yost 27-35). IBM is also the developer of the first general purpose computers, first computers with a byte-addressable

Paterfamilias Free Essays

Jack DeSantis Western Civilization 3/4/13 The Roman Family â€Å"Familia†, the Latin word for family. This word played a very large role in that of that Roman society. The Roman family is essentially the basic component of Roman society and could also be the archetype of political authority. We will write a custom essay sample on Paterfamilias or any similar topic only for you Order Now Without a strong connection and bond in your Familia your family name could not be respected. Everyone in the family had to play his or her own part and had a specific role or purpose to fulfill in order to be a successful family. Whether you were the head of the family, a wife, or a daughter or son, everyone had their own role and duties to execute. There was a very specific hierarchy and structure in which the Roman family was set up. It started with the oldest living male and stemmed down to the children. At the top of the social hierarchy was the oldest living male, usually the father, known as the â€Å"paterfamilias. † This paterfamilias had supreme power within the family, not only in terms of respect but also legally and politically. He held the right to sell family members if he deemed necessary (although rare). Regardless of age, a son was always legally subject to obeying any living Paterfamilias and was also in charge of fulfilling said duties if the current Paterfamilias passed away (eldest son would become the paterfamilias). Although their legal capabilities allowed them to kill a child, wife or any member of the family, most fathers only used this ability as more of a threat than an action. The idea of a strong family bond proved to be valid throughout most familial in that the Paterfamilias for the most part was an affectionate, caring, and kind father. The respect for the Paterfamilias came from the idea of respect for their elders and ancestors. Every patrician belonged to gen, which was essentially a group that lineage back to common ancestor. With that being said all patricians were required to include their â€Å"third name† which indicated their gens. All Roman males had a person and a family name, yet only the elite and well off would have a middle name. This basically set them apart from everyone else and would indicate their wealth. Similar to most societies of their the time the Roman woman never became independent from their familias. For the most part woman would be considered more of an object than a member of a family. Instead of receiving a personal name like men, a daughter would be referred to by her fathers’ gens. The paterfamilias was only responsible for the first-born daughter in the family. He would be responsible for his wife, son, and daughter yet if second daughter were to be born he could legally renounce her and let her die. Although for the most part abandoned daughters would survive and be raised as slaves. Not only did the paterfamilias have the ability sell his daughter to slavery, kill her either by abandoning her or by actually sentencing her to death as punishment, but he also reserved the right to marry her off to whomever he pleased. Although it seems that the paterfamilias would not really treat his daughters with respect, for the most part fathers still loved and cared for their daughters. Once married off to other familias, the wives would commonly be among the rest of the family during meals. Unlike classical Greece, woman had much more influence behind the scenes. Husbands would often look to their wives for advice on certain issues being that wives were taught to take an interest in their husband’s lives outside the realm of the household. Divorce was very common among Romans throughout the existence of the empire. Without question if a divorce were to occur the father would retain custody of the children. An article titled â€Å"Roman Family Structure† quoted that, â€Å"In later years, women had the choice of retaining loyalty to their birth family or their husband’s family. They also had expanded rights to seek divorce themselves; but, the children still remained with the father’s family. In later years is in reference to the fact that women’s status underwent changes throughout the Roman empires period of domination (750 BC to 480 AD). The son was given the responsibility of carrying on the family name by marrying a woman (most likely in the same social class) and reproducing an heir. A son was also giv en the responsibility of carry out any and all tasks his paterfamilias asks of him. If the paterfamilias were to pass away (usually around ages 30-40) the eldest son would take on the responsibilities of the head of the family. This would only take place if he were the eldest male member of the family. Not only did blood relatives take part in the familia. Almost every Roman household contained a large family but also at least one slave. Whether you were a patrician or a plebian it was seen as a necessity to own a slave. Most slaves would be in charge of taking care of household tasks. Such as cooking, cleaning as well as gardening. If intelligent enough and actually literate (not common) slaves would also tutor children and help them with their studies. In some households slaves would be treated like family and given certain rights. Most Romans believed in the idea that if a slave were treated well they would work harder than if they were treated poorly. Although all the statistics point to the paterfamilias having supreme right over everyone, only in times of need and punishment would the paterfamilias use their rights. Otherwise he would be a loving, caring father figure who also tried to do what was best for his family. This is all thanks the Roman morals as well as beliefs that through a strong family bond, they could acquire and hold power. Many of these beliefs as well as morals have been passed down to our society today such as a strong family bond. How to cite Paterfamilias, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Object-oriented Programming and Unit free essay sample

This unit is a level 2 core unit in both the B. Computing (BComp) and B. Information and Communications Technologies (BICT) degrees. This unit requires prior completion of the unit 300580 Programming Fundamentals (level 1) and leads on to Operating Systems Programming (level 3 BICT). 1. 2 Textbook The textbook reinforces and complements the content provided in lectures and will also be used extensively in tutorials and practical exercises and assignments. Gaddis, T. (2013). Starting out with JAVA: From Control Structures through Objects (5th Ed. . Boston: Pearson. The textbook includes six months of prepaid access to the book’s companion website. This prepaid subscription provides you with full access to the following student support areas: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Video Notes Source Code Case Studies Appendices A-L MyProgrammingLab (MyProgrammingLab enables immediate personalised feedback on selected programming tasks. This facility will be made use of during s ession on selected tutorial and practical exercises and should be utilised as an important part of the learning experience within the unit). We will write a custom essay sample on Object-oriented Programming and Unit or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page . 3 Approach to teaching Lectures Lectures are designed to provide students with the essential building blocks of knowledge required to successfully complete this unit. Lectures will provide students with an understanding of the material covered at a level that is not possible to attain through mere reading of resources alone. One hour of lecture will be held each week. Please download and read the lecture material available on vUWS and the relevant chapter from the textbook before attending the lecture. Bring a copy of the lecture notes to class each week so that annotations can be made 1 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S Tutorials Tutorials are small group classes that are designed for students to further explore concepts that have been discussed in preceding week’s lectures and/or covered by assigned readings. Students may be asked to prepare solutions to tutorial exercises from week to week to be discussed in the tutorial class. Typically, these exercises will be to develop or interpret algorithms for the solution of small manageable programming tasks. To receive the most benefit from the tutorial sessions students will be expected to have completed the tutorial exercises prior to tutorial so that they can discuss their solution in the classroom setting with their peers and tutor. A selection of the weekly tutorial exercises will be further developed in the practical session to provide students with an opportunity to write program code which implements the algorithms developed. Practical Sessions Practical Sessions are small group classes held in the SCEM computer laboratories and are designed to enable in-class time to write Java program ode which implements various algorithms as discussed in tutorials and/or via other suitable preparation as may be needed from time to time. Students will use the Eclipse IDE and MyProgrammingLab to write their Java code. Students will be able to ask questions of their class tutor during the practical sessions to assist them in their algorithm development and coding in the Java language. This unit is very ‘hands-on’. Students will be exposed to practical programming tasks that are best learnt and understood by ‘doing’. A number of the practical sessions will also be designated for completion and submission of assessable programing exercises. These programming exercises will be similar in nature to what the student has been exposed to previously in tutorial and/or practical exercises. More detail on this is given in section 2. 2 and 2. 3 of this learning guide. Each student should be registered for a weekly two-hour practical class. MyProgrammingLab MyProgrammingLab is a website provided by the publisher of the textbook. The website contains selected exercises from each of the textbook chapters. The UI of the website enables students to solve simple programming tasks online without the need for a compiler and will provide immediate personalised feedback on each exercise attempted. MyProgrammingLab will be utilised for selected tutorial and practical exercises which will be identified in the unit vUWS site. Assessments As mentioned above a number of the practical exercises will be assessable and are implemented as such to encourage students to develop their problem solving and programming skills throughout the entire semester rather than just prior to a major assessment falling due; this cannot be ephasised enough. The problem solving and programming skills obtained through lectures, tutorial and practical exercises, use of MyProgrammingLab and appropriate reading will be expanded and applied to a more in-depth programming project that spans two assignment deliverables. Hence, it is important that students apply themselves to the smaller tutorial and practical exercises to be able to pick up the skills needed to solve this more complex problem. Furthermore, being a very practically oriented unit there is no final written examination at the end of session. Instead, one partial-open-book practical test will be run during session that will assess arious problem solving and programming skills in a controlled environment. 2 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S Feedback for assessable practical exercises and the assignments will be made available online as soon after the submission deadline as is practicable. Normally this is two weeks. Wherever possible the tutor will also give ve rbal feedback on practical exercises during class; this will enable students the opportunity to improve upon their work prior to the next assessment due date. 1. 4 Staff details Unit Coordinator: Paul Davies Building 26, Room 1. 54, Campbelltown Campus Phone: 4620 3405 Email: p. [emailprotected] edu. au Campus lecturer (see teaching staff details below) Campbelltown, Penrith Parramatta Lecturer Paul Davies Building 26, Room 1. 54, Campbelltown Campus Phone: 4620 3405 Email: p. [emailprotected] edu. au Campbelltown Tutor Paul Davies Building 26, Room 1. 54, Campbelltown Campus Phone: 4620 3405 Email: p. [emailprotected] edu. au Penrith Parramatta Tutor Dr Zhouyu Fu Building Y, Room 3. 34, Penrith (Kingswood) Campus Phone: 4736 0614 Email: z. [emailprotected] edu. au Other Penrith Parramatta Tutors At the time of publication of this learning guide the school had not fully decided upon casual staff for this unit. All tutor contact details will be published in the â€Å"Tutor Details† link in vUWS when known. First point of contact: Teaching Staff: Technical Staff: School technical staff are available on each campus to assist with issues relating to SCEM lab computers. Lab Assistants Campbelltown: Building 6, Room G. 16, Mon – Fri 9am to 6pm Parramatta: Building EB, Room 1. 49, Mon – Fri 9am to 9pm Penrith: Building Y, Room 2. 32, Mon – Fri 9am to 6pm Campus Support Officers Campbelltown: John Pullan, Building 26, Room 1. 31 Parramatta: Nabil Mansour, Building ER, Room G. 5 Penrith: Noshir Bulsara, Building Y, Room 2. 13 Email: [emailprotected] uws. edu. au 3 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S 1. 5 Student consultation arrangements Consultation Students will be able to consult with teaching staff for this unit during any of the open practical sessions for this unit and at the times indicated by the staff member in the Tutor Details link of the v UWS site for this unit. Students are encouraged to seek assistance during these times but further times can be arranged with the staff member by prior appointment (see contact details in section 1. 4). Email Under normal circumstances students should expect a response to any unit related email within 48 hours (excluding weekends) provided that the email was sent from the student’s UWS email address. Email sent from non-UWS student email addresses will not be answered. When sending unit related email please adhere to the following protocol: †¢ include the acronym PT in the subject line (PT = Programming Techniques) †¢ include your student id in the subject line †¢ clearly indicate your student id, name, home campus and your question in the body of the email. 4 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S Section 2. Assessment Details . 1 Learning outcomes and assessment Learning Outcomes On the successful complete of this unit it is expected that you will be able to: 1. With a chosen programming language in mind, analyse a given Practical Exercises, problem and Programming Project, Practical Programming Test a. Develop an algorithm that applies structured programming techniques such as sequence, selection, iteration and modularisation that solve the given problem b. Choose suitable data types to store relevant data for the given problem c. Implement the solution algorithm using the chosen programming language, data types and control structures d. Test and debug the program code to produce a working computer program 2. Write and implement programs that use data structures such as arrays Practical Exercises, to solve problems in programming involving multiple data items Programming Project, Practical Programming Test 3. Demonstrate how different searching and sorting methods operate Programming Project, Practical and be able to implement them in working computer programs Programming Test 4. Store, retrieve and manipulate data programmatically from secondary Practical Exercises, storage Programming Project, Practical Programming Test 5. Use object-oriented methodology to analyse relatively simple problems and develop object-oriented computer program solutions Programming Project, Practical Programming Test Assessment tasks Each of the assessment tasks has been designed to evaluate the extent to which the student has achieved these learning outcomes. 5 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S 2. 2 Assessment summary One hundred percent (100%) of the assessment in this unit will be in the form of continuous assessment (ie, there is no final examination), which consists of the following mandatory items: Continuous Assessment Task Weight Due Date Time Practical Exercises: five assessable practical sessions (6% each). 30% Assessable Prac 1: in registered practical class during week 4; 110 minutes duration; exercises made available at start of class; exercises must be submitted by the end of class. Assessable Prac 2: in registered practical class during week 7; 110 minutes duration; exercises made availabl e at start of class; exercises must be submitted by the end of class. Assessable Prac 3: online via vUWS; 110 minutes duration in one sitting; can be attempted once at any time between 9am Monday 29th April 2013 and 11. 9pm Sunday 5th May 2013; Assessable Prac 4: online via vUWS; 110 minutes duration in one sitting; can be attempted once at any time between 9am Monday 6th May 2013 and must be submitted by 11. 59pm Sunday 12th May 2013 Assessable Prac 5: online via vUWS; 110 minutes duration in one sitting; can be attempted once at any time between 9am Monday 13th May 2013 and must be submitted by 11. 59pm Sunday 19th May 2013 All will be submitted electronically. 2 Programming Project. Two deliverables, Assignment 1 and Assignment 2 (20% each) 40% Assignment 1: 6pm Friday 19th April 2013 Assignment 2: 6pm Friday 31st May 2013 Both will be submitted electronically 3 Practical Programming Test: 90 minutes, partial open-book Total 30% * In registered practical class during week 13. * A threshold requirement exists for this assessment item see notes next page. 100% 6 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S Notes: In order to gain a passing grade in this unit, the student must satisfy all of the following: 1. Complete all mandatory assessment items that are listed in the table above 2. Obtain a minimum total assessment mark of 50% in the unit. 3. Obtain a minimum mark of 40% (ie, 12/30) in the Practical Programming Test. The total assessment mark (out of 100) that the student achieves in the unit will form the basis for the determination of the grade the student will receive in the unit subject to the criteria listed above. Final marks and grades are subject to confirmation by the School and University Assessment Committees which may scale, modify or otherwise amend the marks and grades for the unit, as may be required by University policies. . 3 Assessment details ASSESSMENT TASK 1: PRACTICAL EXERCISES Details about Practical Exercises Each week students will complete a number of practical exercises in class time as described in section 1. 3. On five occasions during semester students will submit their solutions to designated exercises for marking. The due dates for the five assessable practical sessions are shown in the table in section 2. 2. The first two of the assessable practicals will be held in class time in the weeks designated in the table in section 2. 2. The exercises that will be submitted for marking for these two assessable practicals will be given to the student at the time of their practical class and will need to be submitted by the end of the practical class; hence the student will have 110 minutes to complete and submit the exercises. Students will therefore need to attend these practical sessions in person to be able to receive the exercises, develop and submit their solutions. The remaining three assessable practicals will be run online via vUWS and must be submitted no later than the dates designated in the table in section 2. 2. The exercises will be available to attempt in vUWS one week prior to the due date (see table in section 2. 2). Once available, the student may attempt the practical exercises at any time prior to the due date but will be limited to a maximum of 110 minutes to complete the exercises in one sitting. Students must ensure that files submitted for marking are their own individual work and abide by the file types as defined by the unit coordinator. After submission of each assessable practical all student code will be checked for plagiarism using the â€Å"measure of software similarity† (MOSS) system. Submission details All assessable practical exercise in this unit must be submitted electronically by the date that they fall due. The submission procedure will be detailed in the exercise document provided to the student at the time of the assessment. Unless otherwise advised, exercises that have been submitted on time will be marked by the tutors and results announced via vUWS approximately 10 working days after the relevant due date. Submission of the five assessable practical exercises is compulsory. Late submission of practical exercises will incur a late penalty of 10% per day. Marking criteria and standards Please refer to the PT vUWS site for details. 7 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S ASSESSMENT TASK 2: PROGRAMMING PROJECT Details about the Programming Project The project aims to extend student knowledge in the application of problem solving and programming techniques to a larger scale business type problem. The project covers learning outcomes 1 to 5 as listed in section 2. 1 and will require two deliverables to be submitted for marking, Assignment 1 and Assignment 2. Assignment 1 will focus on the procedural programming aspects of the unit whilst Assignment 2 will focus on the object oriented programming aspects of the unit. Specific requirements of each assignment will be detailed in the assignment specification documents released via the PT vUWS site. Students must ensure that files submitted for marking are their own individual work and abide by the file types as defined by the unit coordinator. Submission details Both assignments in this unit must be submitted electronically by the due date and time as indicated in the table in section 2. 2. The submission procedure will be detailed in the assignment document provided to the student in the unit vUWS site. Unless otherwise advised, assignments that have been submitted on time will be marked by the tutors and results announced via vUWS approximately 10 working days after the relevant due date. Submission of both Assignments is compulsory; a penalty (10% per day, for each day after the scheduled due date) will be applied to students who do not submit on time. Marking criteria and standards Please refer to the PT vUWS site for details. ASSESSMENT TASK 3: PRACTICAL PROGRAMMING TEST Details about Practical Programming Test The practical programming test is designed to test students’ knowledge of the unit material covered in lectures, recommended reading, tutorial exercises, practical exercises and coding skills and will contain several short answer coding questions. The test will be held in the students registered practical class during week 13, will be 1. 5 hours duration and will be partial open-book. Specific restrictions will be placed upon the resources that students will be allowed to use during the test. The restrictions will be published in vUWS prior to the test. The test will cover all material covered in weeks 1 to 12. The test will be conducted during the student’s registered practical class in the week set down in the Assessment Summary table in section 2. 2 of this learning guide. Attendance at the test is compulsory; a penalty (10% per day, for each day after the scheduled date) will be applied to students who do not sit the test in their registered practical class. Prior permission must be sought from the unit coordinator by the student if it is known that they will not be able to attend the test, or as soon after the sitting date as practicable, if not. Submission details The test will be held in week 13 in the student’s registered practical class. It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that they are correctly registered for a practical class in Platform Web Tutorial Registration system for this purpose. This system will be closed to PT students in week 6 of session. 8 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S Section 3. Teaching and Learning Activities 3. 1 Schedule of Learning and Teaching Activities The Autumn teaching session begins on 25th February 2013. Please note that the table below is an abridged version of the Schedule document that can be found on the unit’s vUWS site. Please refer to the online version in vUWS for readings and external resource links. Week Topics Student Activities 1 Unit introduction; review of procedural programming constructs using Java Tutorial and Practical classes start in week 2. Prior to week 2 you should: †¢ †¢ Purchase your textbook Download and install Eclipse 4. 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Review of procedural programming constructs using Java A first look at classes Arrays Tutorial and Practical exercises Tutorial and Practical exercises Tutorial exercises Assessable Practical 1 in class Searching and Sorting algorithms Tutorial and Practical exercises Note: Public Holiday Friday 31st March Note: Public Holiday Monday 1st April. No Lectures will run this week on any campus. Online material will be used instead Text Processing Tutorial and Practical exercises Note: Public Holiday Monday 1st April. Tutorial exercises Assessable Practical 2 in class 7 8 9 10 11 Intra session break Intra session break Assignment 1 due Text Processing A second look at classes and objects Tutorial and Practical exercises Note: Public Holiday Thursday 25th April. Tutorial and Practical exercises Assessable Practical 3 online Inheritance and Polymorphism Tutorial and Practical exercises Assessable Practical 4 online 9 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S Week Topics Student Activities 12 13 14 Data files Tutorial and Practical exercises Assessable Practical 5 online Unit review No lecture this week Practical Programming Test in class Assignment 2 due For full details about the timetable for this unit, go to http://platformweb. uws. edu. au/pweb_tt/start. asp Lectures, Tutorials, Practicals, MyProgrammingLab, Assessments Please see section 1. 3 of this learning guide for descriptions about lectures, tutorials, practicals and MyProgrammingLab. Please see section 2. 2 and 2. 3 of this learning guide for details abut assessments. 10 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S Section 4. Learning Resources and Information As independent learners you must make choices about the resources you use to help you with your learning activities and assessments in this unit. In the following section we briefly summarize the resources that are available to you. 4. 1 People who can help Teaching Team Your unit coordinator, Paul Davies, is your first point of contact to help clarify any issues with the learning activities in Programming Techniques. Asking your lecturer and/or tutor is best when asking questions about the unit content. Your lecturer and/or tutor will be happy to help you during any of the practical sessions or in their consultation hours which are detailed in vUWS in the Tutor Details link. Librarian The librarian and other library staff on your campus can help with finding information. You can contact the library staff via the library home page, or just call in to the library on your campus. Student Learning Unit The Student Learning Unit organises and runs a variety of programs and courses to develop students academic literacy, mathematics and study skills, and participates in many collaborative projects with Schools and Colleges to enhance the academic achievement of UWS students. You can access a list of their activities, such as SLU Workshops and Peer Assisted Study Sessions, at http://www. uws. edu. au/campuses_structure/cas/services_facilities/slu. Further information about any of the SLU services can be obtained via email at [emailprotected] edu. au. 4. 2 Useful reading Your textbook provides content relating to many, but not all, of the topics covered in this unit. Therefore, other resources will be required to supplement the textbook. This section lists some recommended resources to assist your studies. The list of books can also be obtained electronically via the UWS library at http://readings. uws. edu. au/imageserver/readings. php? ci=3030. Textbook The textbook reinforces and complements the content provided in lectures and will also assist in many of the tutorial and practical exercises and assignments. Please see section 1. for details about the many benefits of the textbook. Gaddis, T. (2013). Starting out with JAVA: From Control Structures through Objects (5th Ed. ). Boston: Pearson. Library resources The following books are available in the UWS library and may be useful to you during your studies in this unit. They cover several of the major topics within the unit and are provided here as alternate references to the textbook identified ab ove. Some of you will find that the textbook gives sufficient coverage, others will find that you need extra information or a different way of describing a particular concept. These resources may be helpful to you in this situation. The resources listed below are accessible directly form the library at http://readings. uws. edu. au/imageserver/readings. php? ci=4703. Barclay. K. , Savage. W. J. (2004). Object-oriented design with UML and Java. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann. Available Online 11 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S Bryant, J. (2011). Java 7 for absolute beginners. Berkeley, CA: Apress. Available Online Eden, A. H. , Nicholson, J. (2011). Codecharts: Roadmaps and blueprints for object-oriented programs. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Friesen, J. (2011). Beginning Java 7. Berkeley, CA: Apress. Available Online Horstmann, C. (2013). Big Java: Late objects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons. Juliff, P. L. (2002). Program design (4th ed. ). New Delhi, India: Prentice-Hall. Liang, Y. D. (2013). Introduction to Java programming: Comprehensive version (9th ed. ). Boston, MA: Pearson. Malik. D. S. (2012). Java programming: From problem analysis to program design (5th ed. ). Boston, MA: Course Technology, Cengage Learning. Ramnath, S. , Dathan, B. (2011). Object-oriented analysis and design. London, UK: Springer-Verlag. Available Online Robertson, L. A. (2006). Simple program design: A step-by step approach (5th ed. ). Southbank, Australia: Thomson Learning. Savitch, W. (2012). Java: An introduction to problem solving programming (6th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Schildt, H. (2012). Java: A beginners guide (5th ed. ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Skrien. D. (2009). Object-oriented design using Java. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Vocking, B. , Alt, H. , Dietzfelbinger, M. , Reischuk, R. , Scheideler, C. , Vollmer, H. (2011). Algorithms unplugged. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. Available Online Lecture notes Lecture notes are provided in the PT vUWS site. They can be downloaded from the Lecture Notes link. Many of the weeks will also contain example code that you will be able to edit and ‘play with’ to assist your learning. Much of the material covered in lectures will be helpful in developing solutions to your tutorial, practical exercises and assignments. Reading lists Reading lists for weekly topics for this unit are specified in the Schedule link of the PT vUWS site. Online Resources From time to time during session various online resources will be suggested in vUWS to assist with your learning. Additionally the assigned textbook provides access to a number of online resources that will assist your studies; these include: myProgrammingLab, source code, video notes and case studies. 12 3 0 0 5 8 1 , P R O G R A M M I N G T E C H N I Q U E S 4. 3 Other UWS website resources The UWS website http://www. uws. edu. au has a number of quick-links that will be useful during session. These include direct access to UWS Library, vUWS, handbook, timetable, and tutorial registration just to name a few. The â€Å"UWS Students† page of the UWS web site http://www. uws. edu. au/uws_students contains many important links, including information on Enrolment, Fees, Forms, Exams, Results, Graduations, Services and Facilities, Student Support, MyUWS. Other links which may be useful during session include: †¢ Students with a disability should visit: http://www. uws. edu. au/currentstudents/current_students/services_and_facilities/disability_service †¢ Course and Unit Rules This page provides information on various rules associated with UWS courses and units http://www. uws. edu. u/currentstudents/current_students/managing_your_study/enrolment/course_and_uni t_rules †¢ Policies – This page includes the full details of policies that apply to you as a UWS student. http://www. uws. edu. au/policy/policy_dds 4. 4 Referencing Requirements When coding assignments and practical work in this unit it is desirable that each student submits original work only, however it i s understood that students may sometimes use segments of code from other sources as inspiration for their work. These sources may include the lecture notes and practical exercises, a textbook, or tutorial site from the web, but must not